There are different types of precious metals that are used to make fine jewelry. Jewelry is made out of gold, silver, platinum, and palladium. Most people have a preference in what type of metal they prefer whether it be gold or white in color. Gold has a long history and has been used for thousands of years for ornamental decorations and jewelry. Most engagement rings are made of either 18K or 14K gold. The capital letter K stands for karat and is how the amount of pure gold is measured in a ring. 18K gold consists of 75% gold and 25% other metals, such as copper and silver. 14K gold consists of 58% gold and 42% of other metals including copper and silver. The reason gold is mixed with other alloys is because it is too soft for jewelry otherwise. Both 18K and 14K gold make beautiful rings. Rings that are 14K gold are usually less expensive; however, the 18K gold will have a brighter yellow color and will be more durable and valuable. If you are looking for the gold with a silver look you can choose 18K or 14K white gold. If your loved one prefers white jewelry you can choose between white gold, palladium, or platinum. Platinum is very expensive metal, but one of the most durable metals. Platinum is one of the rarest and most sought after of all the precious metals. To give you an example of how rare it is; all of the platinum ever mined would fit in the average living room. The process for making platinum for jewelry takes 10 tons of ore and a five-month process to make just 1 ounce of platinum. Platinum is very strong and heavier than gold and will not wear away or wear down. Palladium is an excellent choice when it comes to choosing a metal for a ring, because it has many of the same qualities as platinum but it is much cheaper. Palladium is a member of the platinum metals group and for a long time it was not separated from platinum. Palladium jewelry is continuing to become a popular choice for making fine jewelry. It is lightweight and has a brilliant white luster which is even whiter than platinum. Palladium is starting to be the new trend in jewelry and is quickly catching up to platinum. With the skyrocketing prices of Platinum choosing Palladium is a smart choice. It is lighter and is also a natural white metal at a much more affordable price. If you are environmentally aware you should look for fine and reputable jewelry stores that use recycled metals in their jewelry. Jewelry made out of recycled metals are just as beautiful and have high quality, but not harmful to the environment. The mining of precious metals uses a lot of our natural resources and depletes our supplies. Using recyclable metal is a way to spare our environment and allows you to purchase a fine piece of jewelry at the same time.
The term blacksmith has an interesting origin. The “smith” part of it comes from the old English word “smite” which means to hit. So a “smith” is someone whose work involves hitting and pounding to produce a finished product. Depending on the type of metal being used, the artisan was known as a goldsmith, a coppersmith and so on. Since ferrous metal like iron and steel are black in color, the person who work on shaping the metals was known as a blacksmith. The traditional metal for blacksmiths to work with was wrought iron. When iron ore is smelted to create a useable metal, some quantity of carbon is usually to the molten metal. The higher the carbon content, the harder, and so more brittle it is. High carbon contents of over 2% result in what is known as cast iron. This iron has a low melting point and can easily be pored into moulds and cast into various shapes. Iron with a carbon content of less than 0.25% and which has iron silicate or slag added to it is wrought iron. Wrought iron has a high melting point and the iron silicate give it a doughy or plastic like texture when it is subject to extreme heat. The characteristic of not melting but becoming malleable when heated makes it the ideal metal of choice for blacksmiths to use. Wrought iron is both a process and the name of a metal. The word wrought means to work a metal into a shape by hammering, pressing, twisting and bending. In other words, a product created by any or all of these processes is said to be wrought. Unlike many other ferrous metals wrought iron is corrosion resistant and because of its rough finish, accepts painting or any other form of coating well. However, in America wrought iron is no longer made and the last plant making wrought iron closed shop in 1969.The reasons for this were economic. Producing wrought iron is a labor intensive and expensive process and steel, which can replace wrought iron in many respects, is both cheaper and easier to produce. The only way a blacksmith can procure wrought iron today is to import it in the form of scrap metal from Europe. So the ideal metal for a blacksmith to work with is almost unavailable. The replacement is mild steel which, because of its low carbon content, similar to wrought iron, is also malleable and can be heated and forged into shape. What this means is that when we refer to a blacksmith’s products as being wrought iron, we are no longer talking of the material used in the manufacturing process but of the process itself. Any ferrous metal can be “wrought” or heated and worked into shape so irrespective of the material a blacksmith is using, in common parlance it is still known as wrought iron. Most forged items that come from a blacksmith are now made of mild steel, which is not as easy as wrought iron to work with, but the advanced is forge and metal working technology and equipment have compensated for this this, so the quality and finish of the “wrought iron” products remain even though they are no longer made from iron.
Metals are similar to woods in such a way that each kind has a special use. The use of metals greatly depends on what you need to make. There are five primary types of metals. There are also alloys, which are created by melting two or more metals and mixing them together. Iron is the first kind of metal and the most useful type. It has the colour of silver and is very tough in its pure form. It also has the property of malleability. This means that iron can be pounded yet it will not break. It also has the ductility property so iron is good to be used for wiring systems. However, it is hard to get pure iron since most of the iron metals in the world have a small percentage of other elements like carbon, phosphorus, silica and sulphur. When mixed with other elements, iron tends to showcase different properties. An example is cast-iron which is rich in carbon. It can easily be casted onto moulds but it has a reduced malleability so it is easily broken when hammered. Another kind of iron is wrought iron. This one contains little amount of carbon so it has a good level of malleability. Between the cast iron and wrought iron is steel. It is good for casting, forging, tampering and hardening. Tin is also another metal that is hard to find. It is white but looks like silver. It has a great malleability that you can even make tin foil and has a very low melting point that is good for making alloys. However, the tin plate that people call is not pure tin. In fact, a tin plate is just a thin sheet of iron that is coated from tin. This metal is used mainly as covering for other metals like iron for them not to rust. Zinc is an easy to cut blue-white metal. It is normally found in alloy form but it is also possible to find zinc in a pure state. In fact, the brass you know is made from zinc and another metal called copper. There are many uses for this metal depending on how you will prepare it or how you will heat it up. Zinc, at 100 degrees Fahrenheit, can be rolled to form sheets and rods. Zinc is then very brittle when cold or when heated up to 200 degrees Fahrenheit. Lead is a very heavy metal found in bluish colour near to gay. Despite the weight, lead is very soft and can easily be rolled or pounded to form various shapes. It also melts easily even at low temperature. In fact, it is the softest metal. It is normally used for making utensils. In addition, lead is also good for making alloys.
Some examples are as follows:
• Solder – this alloy is 50% lead and 50% tin.
• Type-Metal – an alloy made largely from lead mixed with antimony.
• Pewter – this is an alloy with a bit of lead (about 20 to 25 per cent) and greatly comprised of tin.
As the competition for raw materials, the global mining and metals industry turnover and trading volume is bound to rise, “Ernst Young global mining and metals industry, Managing Partner Mike Elliott, said on the 6th. The first half of 2010 to complete the transaction volume growth over last year 20%, up to 544, while turnover increased 46%, reaching 40.6 billion U.S. dollars, China, Japan, India, Singapore, South Korea became the largest buyers. Diversification of trading destinations In addition to the resources of the demand, other factors also are driving trade growth, including cash flow there has been Gaishan will receive a capital has increased, industry streamline the work will be Geng Wei Ge Enterprise Xi Wang’s Chuizhizhengge so strong. Since the end of 2009, trading activity started to improve, and continue to maintain the growth momentum. Australia is the most popular 2009, investment destination, and the first half of this year, Canada has become the most popular investment destination, at the same time, substantial growth in trading activity in Latin America. “Trading activities will continue to accelerate the pace of the closing on June 30 pending transactions are transactions completed during the first half of this year 4 times, and no signs of slowing down.” Elliott said, will continue to see global diversified mining company seeking acquisition opportunities reinforcement. Expected in the first half of 2010, a larger amount of transactions dominated the great merger of the North American market in the next 6 to 12 months continued. This is due to the ongoing consolidation in North America is being driven by economic recovery environment for those who receive cash and hopes of gaining synergies through the acquisition of companies that provide acquisition opportunities. Elliott said the next 6 to 12 months, trading continued diversification of destinations in Africa and Central Asia will be increased trading activity. Equity financing as the main channel As the shortage of available bank loans, equity financing is still the preferred source of funds in the industry. 2009 of the larger global diversified mining companies to become the leading force in raising funds in 2010, middle market companies raise funds from the more active. Initial public offering (IPO) activities have begun to return, but rather cautious first half of 2010 listed a total of 53 completed transactions, financing amounted to 6.1 billion U.S. dollars, compared with the same period last year, 19 cases increased the number of transactions, financing, increase the amount of 1.8 billion. Although the Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) and the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX) trading volume in the lead, but the Hong Kong Stock Exchange is still the choice of the industry, the world’s largest single market transactions (UC Rusal Rusal listing financing amounted to 2.2 billion U.S. dollars) is the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. Bond issuance in the first half of 2010 compared with first half of 2009 fell more than 30% compared to because of the large diversified mining companies decline in circulation. China, the highest amount of bond financing, the total amount of 26.4 billion U.S. dollars global financing accounted for 34%. Bank loans continued to decline in loans during the first half of this year compared with last year has decreased. Nearly two-thirds of the amount of money raised for the restructuring or extension of existing loans. Elliott said, “Globally, the industry in bank loans in the doldrums, but BHP Billiton (BHP Billiton) potassium carbonate to obtain bank loans for acquisitions, which may indicate the occurrence to the long-awaited change.”
November 25, China International Chamber of Commerce The Secretary-General Xue-Hai Zhou said China’s exports will decline this year, controlled 15% to 20%, this figure is better than early expectations. This shows that the beginning of China’s exports compared with the situation improved. In respect of various economic indicators stabilized in the domestic recovery, exports decline narrowed when the export situation of China’s hardware industry is in a precarious situation, and the enterprises to be pursued further. First, in October compared with September exports drop in narrowing. November 23, General Administration of Customs released the data, the data show the first 10 months of this year, China’s exports 957.36 billion U.S. dollars, down 20.5%; imports 798.13 billion U.S. dollars, down 19%. Among them, the month in October, China’s exports 110.76 billion U.S. dollars, after deducting price factors, the export volume fell 5.6%, higher than narrowed in September fell 1.1 percentage points; imported 86.78 billion U.S. dollars, after deducting price factors, the volume of imports increased 6.8%, in September compared with declines of 7.1 percentage points. At the same time, Customs statistics also show that 1-October, Sino-US bilateral trade value of 239.36 billion U.S. dollars, down 14.9% year on year decline in import and export of China-US bilateral trade is less than the same period year on year decline in the European Union and Japan, 3.8 and 4.4 percentage points over the same period accounted for 13.6% of the total value of China’s imports and exports. This shows that although China’s exports declined, but the other countries declined even more, China’s export share is actually increasing. 2, B2B trade show international buyers favor of China’s export products B2B media company, according to Chief Operating Officer of Global Sources Pei g revealed that in October 2009 for nearly 300 purchasers conducted an investigation. Survey showed that although the economic situation is not yet clear, but the purchasers active, up to 74% of buyers said it would increase purchases in 2010, of which 79% of buyers are forecast in 2010 will increase their purchases in China. This shows that China’s export market is still favored by the buyers, optimism began to appear. Meanwhile, the survey also revealed that inquiries from buyers in emerging markets is increasing. In the eyes of these buyers, Chinese suppliers still have the absolute advantage in the three major affordable. This shows that the Chinese manufacturers to develop multi-market, efforts also began to be rewarded. Third, China’s hardware export situation “heating” alternate Chinese exports of metal products “warming trend” is mainly manifested in Jiande, Zhejiang, Hardware & Tools foreign exports. It is understood that from January to October, Jiande City, Zhejiang’s foreign trade value of export supply growth to achieve a positive into a negative, an increase of 1.01%, ending 10 consecutive months of negative growth. In particular, 9, October, hardware tools to 49.28% and 96.77% year on year increase of strong recovery. From the data perspective, Jiande City, chemical pharmaceutical, textile, hardware tools, low-voltage electrical four massive exports of the economy’s total exports accounted for 90% of the city. One hardware tool 9, in October was returned 49.28%, 96.77% of the year on year increase of strong recovery. The other, China’s exports of metal products “cold influence” mainly in Jiangsu province’s total export of electromechanical products. According to the Ministry of Commerce Website November 23 News ,1-10 months, Jiangsu Province, to focus on the mechanical and electrical products a growth of 7 drop, and fall were higher than average level of Jiangsu Province. The only ship products in export growth: exports 4.7 billion U.S. dollars, up 39.5%, higher than the export of electromechanical products, Jiangsu Province, 59 percentage points. The other seven are deeper than the decline in exports of the average level of Jiangsu Province, the products are: motor vehicles and accessories, portable power tools, wire and cable, hardware tools, motorcycles, metal processing machines, containers and so on. Decline in exports of these products are deeper than the average level of Jiangsu Province, and thus shows that the first 10 months, Jiangsu Province, export of electromechanical products the overall situation is not optimistic. To sum up the above, the hardware exports from the country there are cold with warm circumstances, it shows that China’s hardware industry’s exports in the overall situation was not stable stage. So, hardware foreign trade enterprises as the situation and timely response measures, for example, actively participate in international exhibitions, improve product quality, increase product innovation, according to the international economic situation, and vigorously to create a low-carbon products, understand the hardware exports of the EU directive, from the This opened the banner to expand foreign markets, and enhancing our hardware products in the international market share.
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